[Fwd: LF: very slow CW on LF]

André Kesteloot akestelo@bellatlantic.net
Sat, 27 Jun 1998 10:15:37 -0400

Rik Strobbe wrote:

> I did a search on internet and found 2 interesting texts, one with the
> European 'rules' for meteor scatter (adopted by IARU Region 1) and another
> describing the USA system.
> Both are attached.
> I think that the Region 1 rules are a good guideline to set up similar rules
> for very slow CW.
> For me the 3 most important points are :
> 1. What is the maximum timespan a QSO may take ?
> 2. What data have to be exchanged to have a valid QSO ?
> 3. What report system to use ?
> The timespan will limit the maximimum dot length. I did a quick check on some
> calls and came to the conclusion that most calls have a length of 64 to 70
> dots (eg. G3LDO, DA0LF, ON7YD are all 64 dots - GW4ALG, LX1PD are 70 dots).
> So a sequence of 2 calls (with a space inbetween) will take about 135 to 150
> dotlengths. If we can find a efficient (=short) report-system its
> contribution on the 'number of dots' needed for a QSO will be minimal.
> Assume that a typical slow-CW QSO will be :
> - station A calls station B
> - station B replies with report
> - station A confirms and gives his report
> - station B confirms
> If we allow 2 hours for this than each step can take 30 minutes. If 150
> dotlengths have to fit in 30 minutes than a dot length can be maximum 12
> seconds.
> If know that the above is simplified, it is just to have a first
> approximation of the relationship between QSO duration and dotspeed.
> One point where the slow-CW procedure will completely differ is the report,
> anyone with a good idea how to report the 'quality' of a slow-CW signal
> recorded with DSP ? Important is that the report is short (1 character ?).
> 73, Rik  ON7YD
>   1. Introduction
>      The goal of the procedures described is to enable contacts to be made
>      by meteor scatter reflection (MS) as quickly and easily as possible.
>      As the reflections are of very short duration the normal QSO procedure
>      is not readily applicable, and special measures must be taken to
>      ensure that a maximum of correct and unmistakeable information is
>      received. The best meteor showers are mostly strong enough to make
>      some of these measures unnecessary, but to encourage use of all
>      generally listed showers there is no reason why the suggested
>      procedures should not always be used.
>   2. Definitions
>      Two types of MS contacts, arranged in different ways, may be
>      distinguished:
>        a. A scheduled contact, where two interested stations agree in
>           advance on the mode (telegraphy or SSB), frequency, timing and
>           period of the contact. This may be done by exchanging letters, or
>           via the VHF net, which is active from 1100 to 1400 UT on each
>           Sunday around 14.345 MHz, 28.345 MHz or 3.624 MHz, depending on
>           the propagation conditions on the HF bands.
>        b. A non-scheduled contact, where a station calls CQ or responds to
>           a CQ call. Such contacts are often called "random MS".
>   3. Timing
>      It is recommended that stations use 2.5 minute periods on telegraphy
>      and 1 minute periods on SSB. This practice gives quite satisfactory
>      results. However, growing technical standards make it possible to use
>      much shorter periods and amateurs may wish to arrange 1 minute
>      schedules for telegraphy and shorter periods for SSB, especially
>      during major showers.
>        a. All MS operators living in the same area should, as far as
>           possible, agree to transmit simultaneously in order to avoid
>           mutual interference.
>        b. If possible, northbound and westbound transmissions should be
>           made in periods 1, 3, 5 etc. counting from the full hour.
>           Southbound and eastbound transmissions should be made in periods
>           2, 4, 6 etc.
>        c. When arranging schedules, one or two hours duration for the
>           schedule may be used. Starting times should be on the hour
>           (e.g.0000, 0100, 0200 UT etc.)
>   4. Scheduled duration
>      Every uninterrupted scheduled period must be considered as a separate
>      trial. This means that it is not possible to break off and then
>      continue the contact at a later time. The duration of scheduled
>      periods is usually one hour or, in some cases, two hours.
>   5. Choice of frequency
>        a. Scheduled contacts
>           Scheduled contacts may be arranged on any frequency, taking into
>           consideration the mode/bandplan, but should avoid using known
>           popular frequencies and the random MS frequency segments 144.095
>           - 144.126 MHz and 144.395 - 144.426 MHz.
>        b. Non-scheduled contacts
>           The frequency used for CQ calls for non-scheduled contacts should
>           be 144.100 MHz for telegraphy and 144.400 MHz for SSB. QSO's
>           resulting from the CQ calls should take place in the 144.101 -
>           144.126 MHz frequency segment (telegraphy) or 144.401 - 144.426
>           MHz frequency segment (SSB), so as to avoid interference on the
>           calling frequencies.
>           The following procedure should be used by the caller to indicate
>           during the CQ on which exact frequency he will listen for a reply
>           and carry out any subsequent QSO:
>             i. Select the frequency to be used for a QSO by checking
>                whether it is clear of traffic and QRM.
>            ii. In the call, immediately following the letters "CQ", a
>                letter is inserted to indicate the frequency that will be
>                used for reception when the CQ call finishes. This letter
>                indicates the frequency offset from the actual calling
>                frequency used. For instance, CQE CQE CQE would indicate
>                that the operator would listen on the calling frequency + 5
>                kHz.
>                   + A = 1 kHzCall would be CQA CQA CQA
>                   + E = 5 kHzCall would be CQE CQE CQE
>                   + N = 14 kHzCall would be CQN CQN CQN
>                   + Z = 26 kHzCall would be CQZ CQZ CQZ
>                In all cases the letter used indicates a frequency higher
>                than the CQ frequency.
>           iii. At the end of the transmitting period the receiver should be
>                tuned to the frequency indicated by the letter used in the
>                CQ call.
>            iv. If a signal is heard on this frequency it may well be a
>                reply from a station who has heard the CQ call and replies
>                on the frequency calculated from the letter used during this
>                call.
>             v. When the caller receives a signal on the frequency indicated
>                during the call and identifies the reply as an answer on his
>                CQ, the transmitter is QSY'ed to the same frequency and the
>                whole QSO procedure takes place there.
>           Example DF7VXS wishes to try a random MS experiment on
>           telegraphy, and wants to start with calling CQ. He first checks
>           his receiver in the range 144.101 - 144.126 MHz and finds a clear
>           frequency on 144.107 MHz. He decides to call CQ on 144.100 MHz,
>           and he must now add a letter to his CQ call to indicate on which
>           frequency he intends to listen. In this example he has chosen a
>           frequency offset of 7 kHz, and therefore he will have to include
>           the seventh letter of the alphabet, the letter "G", in his CQ
>           call. Note that the station receiving the CQ call will reply on a
>           frequency exactly 7 kHz above the one on which the CQ call is
>           heard.
>           If an operator instead of calling CQ wishes to listen for a CQ
>           call the following procedure should be used:
>             i. Listen on 144.100 MHz for telegraphy or 144.400 MHz for SSB
>                CQ's. (Note that when there is considerable activity during
>                major showers stations calling CQ may QSY lower than 144.100
>                or 144.400 MHz in order to be on a clearer frequency).
>            ii. When a CQ call is received, note the letter which follows
>                the letters "CQ" in the call. From this letter calculate the
>                frequency offset which the calling station will use for
>                receiving replies.
>           iii. QSY the transmitter higher in frequency by the number of
>                kHz's found, and transmit a reply during the appropriate
>                period. The format for the reply can be found in section 7.
>            iv. As the QSO will take place on this higher frequency,
>                continue to transmit and to listen (during the appropriate
>                periods) on this frequency. It may be that the station
>                calling CQ will not hear your first reply, but may do so
>                during one or more subsequent periods. Hence there is no
>                need to return to the calling frequency.
>           Example You receive SM3BIU who is calling CQH CQH CQH. This tells
>           you that, regardless of the exact frequency SM3BIU is using for
>           his CQ, he will be listening for a reply exactly 8 kHz higher, as
>           H is the eighth letter of the alphabet. Having established that
>           the CQ was "CQH" you will call him 8 kHz up.
>           N.B. The letter system should not be used for SSB contacts!
>                               (De Haan, September 1993)
>   6. Telegraphy speeds
>      Speeds from 200 to 2000 letters/min. are now in use, but in
>      non-scheduled MS work speeds between 400 - 700 letters/minute are
>      recommended.
>      In scheduled work the speed should always be agreed before the QSO,
>      especially if one station does not have a multi-speed tape recorder.
>      Some operators cannot reach the higher speeds now in use.
>      Note that in some countries, including the UK, the licensing
>      authorities require the callsigns to be sent at a lower speed at the
>      start and finish of each transmission.
>   7. QSO procedure for scheduled contacts and random operation
>        a. Calling
>           The contact starts with one station calling the other, e.g.
>           "DL7QY SM3BIU DL7QY ....". In telegraphy the letters "de" are not
>           used.
>        b. Reporting system
>           The report consists of two numbers:
>            First number Burst duration      Second number Signal strength
>            2            up to 5 sec         6             up to S3
>            3            5 - 20 sec          7             S4, S5
>            4            20 - 120 sec        8             S6, S7
>            5            longer than 120 sec 9             S8 and stronger
>        c. Reporting procedure
>           A report is sent when the operator has positive evidence of
>           having received the correspondent's or his own callsign or parts
>           of them.
>           The report is given as follows: "UA1WW I1BEP 26 26 UA1WW I1BEP 26
>           26 ....". The report should be sent between each set of
>           callsigns, three times for telegraphy, twice for SSB, and must
>           not be changed during a contact even though signal strength might
>           well justify it.
>        d. Confirmation procedure
>             i. As soon as either operator copies both callsigns and a
>                report he may start sending a confirmation. This means that
>                all letters and figures have been correctly received.
>                Confirmation is given by inserting an R before the report:
>                "SM7FJE G3SEK R26 R26 SM7FJE ...". A station with an R at
>                the end of the callsign could send "GW3ZTH I4BER RR27 RR27
>                ...".
>            ii. When either operator receives a confirmation message, such
>                as "R27", and all required information is complete he must
>                confirm with a string of R's, inserting his own callsign
>                after each eighth R: "RRRRRRRR HG5AIR RRRR ....". When the
>                other operator has received R's the contact is complete and
>                he may respond in the same manner, usually for three
>                periods.
>        e. Requirements for a complete QSO
>           Both operators must have copied both callsigns, the report and a
>           confirmation that the other operator has done the same. This
>           confirmation can either be an "R" preceding the report or a
>           string of "RRRR..."'s as explained in paragraph 7.d.ii.
>   8. Missing information (telegraphy only)
>      If a confirmation report is received at an early stage in the contact,
>      the other operator has all the information he needs. The following
>      strings may then be used to ask for missing information:
>       BBB both callsigns missing
>       MMM my callsign missing
>       YYY your callsign missing
>       SSS duration and signal strength missing
>       OOO all information complete
>       UUU faulty keying or unreadable
>      The other operator shall respond by sending only the required
>      information. This approach must be used with great caution to prevent
>      confusion.
> Note These procedures were adopted at the IARU Region 1 Conference in
> Miskloc-Tapolca (1978), and later slightly amended at the IARU Region 1
> Conference in Noordwijkerhout (1987), Toremolinos (1990) and de Haan
> (1993).
>              [HSMS] Latest Standards for HSMS HSCW Operations.
> Date: Wed, 05 Nov 1997 03:19:58 +0000
> To: hsms@tree.net, 72124.2734@compuserve.com, w3ep@arrl.org
> From:  Shelby Ennis, W8WN
> Subject: [HSMS] Standard Procedures
>   The stated (schedule or CQ) frequency will be the actual zero-beat frequency.
>   If using audio-tone injection, the zero-beat frequency is the USB readout plus
>   the frequency of the injected tone.
>   For example:  sked on 144.157.  Xmtr set on 144.155 USB, 2000 Hz audio
>   tone injected.  Sked made for "144.157 Zero Beat".   Receiving station will
>   want approximately a 2000 Hz tone, so will put the receiver on 144.155 USB.
>     For speeds above 2000 lpm, an injected tone of 2000 Hz (or slightly
>     higher) is needed.
>     For speeds of 2000 lpm or less, the injected tone can be 1000 Hz or
>     higher.
>   STATE the frequency-determination method to make sure there is no
>   confusion
>   (For example, "Sked on 144.157  Zero Beat").
>   For CQs, 144.100 (on 2 meters), using the above-stated setting pro-
>   cedure.  Call, listen, and operate on the same frequency.
>   CQs will normally be on a one-minute sequence.  Either period may
>   be used, since they could be answered from any direction.
>   For other VHF bands, the usual CW calling frequency is recommended.
>   If it is apparent that there are several operating, immediately
>   following the letters "CQ", a letter is inserted to indicate the
>   frequency that will be used for reception when the CQ sequence
>   ends.  This letter indicates the frequency offset from the actual
>   CQ frequency used.  For instance, CQE CQE would indicate that the
>   operator would listen on the calling frequency + 5 kHz.  In all
>   cases the letter used indicates a frequency higher than the CQ
>   frequency.  When the CQing station hears a call on the offset
>   frequency he/she immediately then also QSYs to the offset frequency,
>   and the QSO takes place there.
>         CQA - Up 1 kHz
>         CQE - Up 5 kHz
>         CQZ - Up 26 kHz
>         CQAA - up 27 kHz.  Etc.
>   Schedule frequencies will be arranged between the two individual
>   stations on any seemingly unused frequency.  The segment between
>   144.098-144.115 should be avoided during shower peaks and other
>   times of expected heavy activity.  Attempts should be made, of
>   course, to avoid interference with EME operation, 144.008-144.100
>   (and some 144.105-144.150), during times near perigee; and during
>   showers with SSB operation near and above 144.200.
>   The same as for anything else.  An exchange of both call signs, an
>   exchange of some type of information or report, and an exchange of
>   confirmation of the same.
>   When a station copies both calls, he sends calls and report.
>   If he gets both calls and a report, he sends his report & Roger.
>   If he gets report and Roger, he sends rogers.
>   When both get a pair of Rogers (you really need two to be sure!),
>   the QSO is officially complete.  However, the other station may not
>   know this.  So it is customary to then send "73" to let the other
>   station know that he can QRT.
>   Except when something special is required for a contest, an exchange
>   of any information is valid for a QSO.  The commonly-accepted exchanges
>   for MS operation are:
>      1 - Burst length "S" report.  Standard over here since 1950s.
>      2 - Burst duration-signal strength report.  Standard in Europe.
>      3 - Grid square.  Required for some contests.
>                   1 - ping, no info (not sent)     |
>                   2 - ping, up to 5 sec            |   6 - up to S3
>                   3 - 5-15 sec                     |   7 - S4 to S5
>                   4 - 15-60 sec                    |   8 - S6 to S7
>                   5 - over 60 sec                  |   9 - S8 and
>                                                        stronger
>    To use the old "S" system, it is simply "S" plus the appropriate
>    number from the first column.  For the usual information-containing
>    HSCW underdense ping it would be "S2 S2 S2".
>    To use the duration/strength report; for the same ping, with a weak
>    signal, it would be "26 26 26".  Note that there cannot be any confusion
>    between the first and second number; also that the second number is
>    not itself an S-reading.   Also note that the duration report suggested
>    here is just slightly different from the European standard.
>    Once you have started sending a report, it is NOT changed during that
>    schedule, even though you suddenly get a much better burst.  Eg, if you
>    start sending "26", this is the report you would continue to transmit,
>    unless it gets so good that you can start a rag-chew.
>    On high-speed CW MS operation, it is possible to request a missing
>    piece of information.
>        BBB - Both callsigns needed
>        MMM - My callsign needed
>        YYY - Your callsign needed
>        SSS - "S" report (or whatever report used) needed
>        UUU - Ur keying is unreadable
>    When used, nothing but the proper string of letters is sent.
>    The other operator should respond by sending only the required info.
>    When the requesting operator has the needed data, he picks up again
>    in the proper exchange sequence.
>    SPEEDS:
>    For CQs, a speed of about 1000 lpm (200 wpm) is recommended.
>    2000 lpm may also be OK - this should be tested further for CQs.
>    If you intend to run slower than about 800 lpm (160 wpm) or
>    faster than about 3000 lpm (600 wpm), it is recommended that
>    this be confirmed with the other station.
>    For skeds, always determine what the other station wishes to use.
>    On schedules, the Western-most station will transmit the first
>    calling period of each hour and half hour.
>    (Be especially careful when starting on the 15- or 45-minute time).
>    If directions are too nearly north-south to quickly determine which
>    is the Western station, then the Southern station shall transmit
>    the first calling period of each hour and half hour.
>    For CQs, since they may be made in various directions before an
>    answer is received, and since the answer may come from any
>    direction, either period may be used.  But this period should be
>    maintained for the duration of the CQing.
>    CQs will use the one-minute sequencing.
>    For schedules, a period of either 1 minute or 2.5 minutes will
>    be standard for HSCW operation, as 15-sec is the standard for SSB.
>    (Unless stated, the schedule period will be assumed to be 1 minute).
>    OTHER:
>    Schedules are made in Universal Time.  However, for evening
>    schedules, the local time/day may also be needed to be sure that
>    the date is understood properly.
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