[Fwd: LF: very slow CW on LF]
Sat, 27 Jun 1998 10:15:37 -0400
Rik Strobbe wrote:
> I did a search on internet and found 2 interesting texts, one with the
> European 'rules' for meteor scatter (adopted by IARU Region 1) and another
> describing the USA system.
> Both are attached.
> I think that the Region 1 rules are a good guideline to set up similar rules
> for very slow CW.
> For me the 3 most important points are :
> 1. What is the maximum timespan a QSO may take ?
> 2. What data have to be exchanged to have a valid QSO ?
> 3. What report system to use ?
> The timespan will limit the maximimum dot length. I did a quick check on some
> calls and came to the conclusion that most calls have a length of 64 to 70
> dots (eg. G3LDO, DA0LF, ON7YD are all 64 dots - GW4ALG, LX1PD are 70 dots).
> So a sequence of 2 calls (with a space inbetween) will take about 135 to 150
> dotlengths. If we can find a efficient (=short) report-system its
> contribution on the 'number of dots' needed for a QSO will be minimal.
> Assume that a typical slow-CW QSO will be :
> - station A calls station B
> - station B replies with report
> - station A confirms and gives his report
> - station B confirms
> If we allow 2 hours for this than each step can take 30 minutes. If 150
> dotlengths have to fit in 30 minutes than a dot length can be maximum 12
> If know that the above is simplified, it is just to have a first
> approximation of the relationship between QSO duration and dotspeed.
> One point where the slow-CW procedure will completely differ is the report,
> anyone with a good idea how to report the 'quality' of a slow-CW signal
> recorded with DSP ? Important is that the report is short (1 character ?).
> 73, Rik ON7YD
> OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR METEOR SCATTER QSO'S
> 1. Introduction
> The goal of the procedures described is to enable contacts to be made
> by meteor scatter reflection (MS) as quickly and easily as possible.
> As the reflections are of very short duration the normal QSO procedure
> is not readily applicable, and special measures must be taken to
> ensure that a maximum of correct and unmistakeable information is
> received. The best meteor showers are mostly strong enough to make
> some of these measures unnecessary, but to encourage use of all
> generally listed showers there is no reason why the suggested
> procedures should not always be used.
> 2. Definitions
> Two types of MS contacts, arranged in different ways, may be
> a. A scheduled contact, where two interested stations agree in
> advance on the mode (telegraphy or SSB), frequency, timing and
> period of the contact. This may be done by exchanging letters, or
> via the VHF net, which is active from 1100 to 1400 UT on each
> Sunday around 14.345 MHz, 28.345 MHz or 3.624 MHz, depending on
> the propagation conditions on the HF bands.
> b. A non-scheduled contact, where a station calls CQ or responds to
> a CQ call. Such contacts are often called "random MS".
> 3. Timing
> It is recommended that stations use 2.5 minute periods on telegraphy
> and 1 minute periods on SSB. This practice gives quite satisfactory
> results. However, growing technical standards make it possible to use
> much shorter periods and amateurs may wish to arrange 1 minute
> schedules for telegraphy and shorter periods for SSB, especially
> during major showers.
> a. All MS operators living in the same area should, as far as
> possible, agree to transmit simultaneously in order to avoid
> mutual interference.
> b. If possible, northbound and westbound transmissions should be
> made in periods 1, 3, 5 etc. counting from the full hour.
> Southbound and eastbound transmissions should be made in periods
> 2, 4, 6 etc.
> c. When arranging schedules, one or two hours duration for the
> schedule may be used. Starting times should be on the hour
> (e.g.0000, 0100, 0200 UT etc.)
> 4. Scheduled duration
> Every uninterrupted scheduled period must be considered as a separate
> trial. This means that it is not possible to break off and then
> continue the contact at a later time. The duration of scheduled
> periods is usually one hour or, in some cases, two hours.
> 5. Choice of frequency
> a. Scheduled contacts
> Scheduled contacts may be arranged on any frequency, taking into
> consideration the mode/bandplan, but should avoid using known
> popular frequencies and the random MS frequency segments 144.095
> - 144.126 MHz and 144.395 - 144.426 MHz.
> b. Non-scheduled contacts
> The frequency used for CQ calls for non-scheduled contacts should
> be 144.100 MHz for telegraphy and 144.400 MHz for SSB. QSO's
> resulting from the CQ calls should take place in the 144.101 -
> 144.126 MHz frequency segment (telegraphy) or 144.401 - 144.426
> MHz frequency segment (SSB), so as to avoid interference on the
> calling frequencies.
> The following procedure should be used by the caller to indicate
> during the CQ on which exact frequency he will listen for a reply
> and carry out any subsequent QSO:
> i. Select the frequency to be used for a QSO by checking
> whether it is clear of traffic and QRM.
> ii. In the call, immediately following the letters "CQ", a
> letter is inserted to indicate the frequency that will be
> used for reception when the CQ call finishes. This letter
> indicates the frequency offset from the actual calling
> frequency used. For instance, CQE CQE CQE would indicate
> that the operator would listen on the calling frequency + 5
> + A = 1 kHzCall would be CQA CQA CQA
> + E = 5 kHzCall would be CQE CQE CQE
> + N = 14 kHzCall would be CQN CQN CQN
> + Z = 26 kHzCall would be CQZ CQZ CQZ
> In all cases the letter used indicates a frequency higher
> than the CQ frequency.
> iii. At the end of the transmitting period the receiver should be
> tuned to the frequency indicated by the letter used in the
> CQ call.
> iv. If a signal is heard on this frequency it may well be a
> reply from a station who has heard the CQ call and replies
> on the frequency calculated from the letter used during this
> v. When the caller receives a signal on the frequency indicated
> during the call and identifies the reply as an answer on his
> CQ, the transmitter is QSY'ed to the same frequency and the
> whole QSO procedure takes place there.
> Example DF7VXS wishes to try a random MS experiment on
> telegraphy, and wants to start with calling CQ. He first checks
> his receiver in the range 144.101 - 144.126 MHz and finds a clear
> frequency on 144.107 MHz. He decides to call CQ on 144.100 MHz,
> and he must now add a letter to his CQ call to indicate on which
> frequency he intends to listen. In this example he has chosen a
> frequency offset of 7 kHz, and therefore he will have to include
> the seventh letter of the alphabet, the letter "G", in his CQ
> call. Note that the station receiving the CQ call will reply on a
> frequency exactly 7 kHz above the one on which the CQ call is
> If an operator instead of calling CQ wishes to listen for a CQ
> call the following procedure should be used:
> i. Listen on 144.100 MHz for telegraphy or 144.400 MHz for SSB
> CQ's. (Note that when there is considerable activity during
> major showers stations calling CQ may QSY lower than 144.100
> or 144.400 MHz in order to be on a clearer frequency).
> ii. When a CQ call is received, note the letter which follows
> the letters "CQ" in the call. From this letter calculate the
> frequency offset which the calling station will use for
> receiving replies.
> iii. QSY the transmitter higher in frequency by the number of
> kHz's found, and transmit a reply during the appropriate
> period. The format for the reply can be found in section 7.
> iv. As the QSO will take place on this higher frequency,
> continue to transmit and to listen (during the appropriate
> periods) on this frequency. It may be that the station
> calling CQ will not hear your first reply, but may do so
> during one or more subsequent periods. Hence there is no
> need to return to the calling frequency.
> Example You receive SM3BIU who is calling CQH CQH CQH. This tells
> you that, regardless of the exact frequency SM3BIU is using for
> his CQ, he will be listening for a reply exactly 8 kHz higher, as
> H is the eighth letter of the alphabet. Having established that
> the CQ was "CQH" you will call him 8 kHz up.
> N.B. The letter system should not be used for SSB contacts!
> (De Haan, September 1993)
> 6. Telegraphy speeds
> Speeds from 200 to 2000 letters/min. are now in use, but in
> non-scheduled MS work speeds between 400 - 700 letters/minute are
> In scheduled work the speed should always be agreed before the QSO,
> especially if one station does not have a multi-speed tape recorder.
> Some operators cannot reach the higher speeds now in use.
> Note that in some countries, including the UK, the licensing
> authorities require the callsigns to be sent at a lower speed at the
> start and finish of each transmission.
> 7. QSO procedure for scheduled contacts and random operation
> a. Calling
> The contact starts with one station calling the other, e.g.
> "DL7QY SM3BIU DL7QY ....". In telegraphy the letters "de" are not
> b. Reporting system
> The report consists of two numbers:
> First number Burst duration Second number Signal strength
> 2 up to 5 sec 6 up to S3
> 3 5 - 20 sec 7 S4, S5
> 4 20 - 120 sec 8 S6, S7
> 5 longer than 120 sec 9 S8 and stronger
> c. Reporting procedure
> A report is sent when the operator has positive evidence of
> having received the correspondent's or his own callsign or parts
> of them.
> The report is given as follows: "UA1WW I1BEP 26 26 UA1WW I1BEP 26
> 26 ....". The report should be sent between each set of
> callsigns, three times for telegraphy, twice for SSB, and must
> not be changed during a contact even though signal strength might
> well justify it.
> d. Confirmation procedure
> i. As soon as either operator copies both callsigns and a
> report he may start sending a confirmation. This means that
> all letters and figures have been correctly received.
> Confirmation is given by inserting an R before the report:
> "SM7FJE G3SEK R26 R26 SM7FJE ...". A station with an R at
> the end of the callsign could send "GW3ZTH I4BER RR27 RR27
> ii. When either operator receives a confirmation message, such
> as "R27", and all required information is complete he must
> confirm with a string of R's, inserting his own callsign
> after each eighth R: "RRRRRRRR HG5AIR RRRR ....". When the
> other operator has received R's the contact is complete and
> he may respond in the same manner, usually for three
> e. Requirements for a complete QSO
> Both operators must have copied both callsigns, the report and a
> confirmation that the other operator has done the same. This
> confirmation can either be an "R" preceding the report or a
> string of "RRRR..."'s as explained in paragraph 7.d.ii.
> 8. Missing information (telegraphy only)
> If a confirmation report is received at an early stage in the contact,
> the other operator has all the information he needs. The following
> strings may then be used to ask for missing information:
> BBB both callsigns missing
> MMM my callsign missing
> YYY your callsign missing
> SSS duration and signal strength missing
> OOO all information complete
> UUU faulty keying or unreadable
> The other operator shall respond by sending only the required
> information. This approach must be used with great caution to prevent
> Note These procedures were adopted at the IARU Region 1 Conference in
> Miskloc-Tapolca (1978), and later slightly amended at the IARU Region 1
> Conference in Noordwijkerhout (1987), Toremolinos (1990) and de Haan
> [HSMS] Latest Standards for HSMS HSCW Operations.
> Date: Wed, 05 Nov 1997 03:19:58 +0000
> To: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
> From: Shelby Ennis, W8WN
> Subject: [HSMS] Standard Procedures
> METEOR SCATTER PROCEDURES FOR HSCW
> FREQUENCY DETERMINATION:
> The stated (schedule or CQ) frequency will be the actual zero-beat frequency.
> If using audio-tone injection, the zero-beat frequency is the USB readout plus
> the frequency of the injected tone.
> For example: sked on 144.157. Xmtr set on 144.155 USB, 2000 Hz audio
> tone injected. Sked made for "144.157 Zero Beat". Receiving station will
> want approximately a 2000 Hz tone, so will put the receiver on 144.155 USB.
> For speeds above 2000 lpm, an injected tone of 2000 Hz (or slightly
> higher) is needed.
> For speeds of 2000 lpm or less, the injected tone can be 1000 Hz or
> STATE the frequency-determination method to make sure there is no
> (For example, "Sked on 144.157 Zero Beat").
> FREQUENCY USE:
> For CQs, 144.100 (on 2 meters), using the above-stated setting pro-
> cedure. Call, listen, and operate on the same frequency.
> CQs will normally be on a one-minute sequence. Either period may
> be used, since they could be answered from any direction.
> For other VHF bands, the usual CW calling frequency is recommended.
> If it is apparent that there are several operating, immediately
> following the letters "CQ", a letter is inserted to indicate the
> frequency that will be used for reception when the CQ sequence
> ends. This letter indicates the frequency offset from the actual
> CQ frequency used. For instance, CQE CQE would indicate that the
> operator would listen on the calling frequency + 5 kHz. In all
> cases the letter used indicates a frequency higher than the CQ
> frequency. When the CQing station hears a call on the offset
> frequency he/she immediately then also QSYs to the offset frequency,
> and the QSO takes place there.
> CQA - Up 1 kHz
> CQE - Up 5 kHz
> CQZ - Up 26 kHz
> CQAA - up 27 kHz. Etc.
> Schedule frequencies will be arranged between the two individual
> stations on any seemingly unused frequency. The segment between
> 144.098-144.115 should be avoided during shower peaks and other
> times of expected heavy activity. Attempts should be made, of
> course, to avoid interference with EME operation, 144.008-144.100
> (and some 144.105-144.150), during times near perigee; and during
> showers with SSB operation near and above 144.200.
> REQUIREMENTS FOR A QSO:
> The same as for anything else. An exchange of both call signs, an
> exchange of some type of information or report, and an exchange of
> confirmation of the same.
> When a station copies both calls, he sends calls and report.
> If he gets both calls and a report, he sends his report & Roger.
> If he gets report and Roger, he sends rogers.
> When both get a pair of Rogers (you really need two to be sure!),
> the QSO is officially complete. However, the other station may not
> know this. So it is customary to then send "73" to let the other
> station know that he can QRT.
> REPORTS, EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION:
> Except when something special is required for a contest, an exchange
> of any information is valid for a QSO. The commonly-accepted exchanges
> for MS operation are:
> 1 - Burst length "S" report. Standard over here since 1950s.
> 2 - Burst duration-signal strength report. Standard in Europe.
> 3 - Grid square. Required for some contests.
> FIRST NUMBER (BURST DURATION)----SECOND NUMBER (STRENGTH)
> 1 - ping, no info (not sent) |
> 2 - ping, up to 5 sec | 6 - up to S3
> 3 - 5-15 sec | 7 - S4 to S5
> 4 - 15-60 sec | 8 - S6 to S7
> 5 - over 60 sec | 9 - S8 and
> To use the old "S" system, it is simply "S" plus the appropriate
> number from the first column. For the usual information-containing
> HSCW underdense ping it would be "S2 S2 S2".
> To use the duration/strength report; for the same ping, with a weak
> signal, it would be "26 26 26". Note that there cannot be any confusion
> between the first and second number; also that the second number is
> not itself an S-reading. Also note that the duration report suggested
> here is just slightly different from the European standard.
> Once you have started sending a report, it is NOT changed during that
> schedule, even though you suddenly get a much better burst. Eg, if you
> start sending "26", this is the report you would continue to transmit,
> unless it gets so good that you can start a rag-chew.
> MISSING INFORMATION:
> On high-speed CW MS operation, it is possible to request a missing
> piece of information.
> BBB - Both callsigns needed
> MMM - My callsign needed
> YYY - Your callsign needed
> SSS - "S" report (or whatever report used) needed
> UUU - Ur keying is unreadable
> When used, nothing but the proper string of letters is sent.
> The other operator should respond by sending only the required info.
> When the requesting operator has the needed data, he picks up again
> in the proper exchange sequence.
> For CQs, a speed of about 1000 lpm (200 wpm) is recommended.
> 2000 lpm may also be OK - this should be tested further for CQs.
> If you intend to run slower than about 800 lpm (160 wpm) or
> faster than about 3000 lpm (600 wpm), it is recommended that
> this be confirmed with the other station.
> For skeds, always determine what the other station wishes to use.
> On schedules, the Western-most station will transmit the first
> calling period of each hour and half hour.
> (Be especially careful when starting on the 15- or 45-minute time).
> If directions are too nearly north-south to quickly determine which
> is the Western station, then the Southern station shall transmit
> the first calling period of each hour and half hour.
> For CQs, since they may be made in various directions before an
> answer is received, and since the answer may come from any
> direction, either period may be used. But this period should be
> maintained for the duration of the CQing.
> CQs will use the one-minute sequencing.
> For schedules, a period of either 1 minute or 2.5 minutes will
> be standard for HSCW operation, as 15-sec is the standard for SSB.
> (Unless stated, the schedule period will be assumed to be 1 minute).
> Schedules are made in Universal Time. However, for evening
> schedules, the local time/day may also be needed to be sure that
> the date is understood properly.
> Comments: Rein, W6/PA0ZN
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